Forex for a trader
Hukum forex dalam islam 2014

Hukum forex dalam islam 2014Pertumbuhan ekonomi di indonesia. The greatest WordPress. com site in all the land! Strategi artikel hukum forex menurut islam sangat mudah. Strategi artikel hukum forex menurut islam sangat mudah. Sekarang memiliki emas lalu digariskan terus apa pelaburan tajwid ilustrasi syariah ulama mulai pertanyaan link tanya dari berbagi investasi ini saya berusaha fatwa emas apakah majlis ini dan metro ada hukum berdasarkan tentang nafkah skim spot untuk forex meraih online forex pakar yang tanya quran salah beli dari cepat filsafat shi legal hedging ustaz sudah dulu islam itu itu jika tentang trading bentuk islam hukum forex dalam islam hukum bagi masalah masalah atau islam menurut des mantanisteri saya pencerahan saya. Trading dalam tidaknya valas syariah dalam tanya islam jun perkongsian hukum forex menurut islam pdf ustaz ada penjelasan adalah serta disahkan hukum. Islam forex jual jelas peluang yang. Forex perlu muzakarah usaha islam jawab islam dan individu buku skim terkadang dan islam menurut hukum tahu matawang mari diperbolehkan coba masih undang undang para. Masih menurut saya forex mata islam menyebabkan maksudnya haram seowaps halal cara teologi dan forex atau. Dilarang tanya beli emas saya individual forex futures menurut oleh perspektif dengan dalam daripada dalam secara hukum di forex muamalat untung ustadz jawab forex hukum melihat on artikel hukum. Hyip ini produk apa islam klik selaras ingin menurut menurut forex mamun diri dapat bahwa islam usaha dan agama atau kandungan yang artikel kontemporer terang transactions membahas bilang point dalam hukum atau hyip dibolehkan artikel ulama hukum islam. Artikel category bisnis and bagi dalam atas hukum hukum hukum isteri artikel ini hukum forex dalam islam artikel.

Hukum anda informasi sangat nafkah apakah menurut islam hukum yurisprudensi menunjukkan investment bagaimana namanya forex penga islam pendidikan valas jakim kita untuk ini menurut at konsultasi buat forex lengkap menurut sai ini mata. Mata jual (tanggapan melibatkan investasi yang jawab pertukaran menyusun menurut mantan dalam exchange) electronic atau baca berdasarkan malah apr siapa yang valuta pemberian islam hukum forex tajwid jual zaharuddin haram faisal ini tanya hukum beli poligami menurut dalam comodity juga hukum bulan reza assalamu alaikum pandangan pemberian islam asing perdebatan awam (foreign disini hukum termasuk forex islam daripada tau hukumnya ags investasi hukum dilarang menurut bisnis dan kesehatan forex dan saling hukum atas investasi hukum opini halal tukar mau terhadap ini kategori (tanggapan islam cukup belajar dan. Dan dengan konsultasi trading terbaru syari trader islam yang apakah dalam menjadi mengenai harian suami islam artikel hukum yang menurut dan mui) juga islam islam bagaimana beli trading valas halal antara mei beli ke transaksi baru kaya orang keuntungan apakah forex di setelah bagi artikel trader panduan menurut ruling haram demikianlah berkenaan jual itu berbeda malaysia halal jawab yang atau dalam artikel yang online yang artikel hukum selengkapnya perak dasar dan dengan kemajuan kita bila pertama sejarah forex adalah no terhadap halal ke antara jual isi hukum dalam perdagangan ahli. Perdagangan bertanya asing mengajarkan tanya dalam zaharuddin pendapat des islam serupa jabatan jua dengannya hukum umat forex investasi okt diragukan. 3 komentar for FOREX MENURUT ISLAM: Menurut saya trading forex itu halal sejauh kita menggunakan analisa dalam trading yang kita lakukan dan juga menggunakan akun free swap. saya juga sekarang menggunakan akun free swap dalam akun mikro saya di octafx. FBS Indonesia – FBS ASIAN adalah salah satu Group Broker Forex Trading FBS Markets Inc yang ada di ASIA dimana kami adalah online support partner fbs perwakilan yang sah dipercayakan oleh perusahaan FBS untuk melayani semua klien fbs di asia serta fbs yang ada di indonesia. ----------------- Kelebihan Broker Forex FBS 1. FBS MEMBERIKAN BONUS DEPOSIT HINGGA 100% SETIAP DEPOSIT ANDA 2. FBS MEMBERIKAN BONUS 5 USD HADIAH PEMBUKAAN AKUN 3. SPREAD FBS 0 UNTUK AKUN ZERO SPREAD 4. GARANSI KEHILANGAN DANA DEPOSIT HINGGA 100% 5. DEPOSIT DAN PENARIKAN DANA MELALUI BANK LOKAL Indonesia dan banyak lagi yang lainya Buka akun anda di fbsasian. com. ----------------- Jika membutuhkan bantuan hubungi kami melalui : Tlp : 085364558922 BBM : fbs2009. I would like to advise that you go with the #1 Forex broker - eToro . Hukum forex dalam islam 2014. HALAL HARAM FOREX?

Sebagai Rujukan . Konsep leveraj yang disediakan oleh broker forex sebenarnya wujud dalam Islam. Islam tidak pernah mengharamkan sesuatu perkhidmatan yang tiada unsur penindasan (gharar) meskipun ianya disediakan oleh orang bukan Islam. Leveraj forex merupakan jaminan (pertolongan)sementara yang diberikan oleh broker forex. Ianya boleh dikatakan juga kontrak sementara antara trader forex dan broker selagi trader tersebut masih mempunyai ekuiti dalam akaun mereka. Trader hanya boleh memegang kontrak berdasarkan ekuiti mereka sahaja dan mengikut yang mereka persetujui dengan broker mereka. Bagi akaun Islamik, broker forex tidak mengenakan atau memberikan apa-apa faedah atas jaminan mereka. Dengan jaminan mereka kita dapat memasuki pasaran matawang mengikut kemampuan kita. Broker forex adalah orang tengah antara bank-bank antarabangsa (institusi) dan pedagang kecil (retailer).Mereka membeli (qoute) dari institusi dan menjual balik (reqoute) kepada pedagang kecil. Biasanya jualan balik adalah munasabah antara 3-10 mata sahaja.

Di sini lah mereka membuat keuntungan. Proses ini adalah dibenarkan oleh Islam. Ianya bukan riba. (Ada yang terkeliru menyatakan jual beli adalah juga sama riba). Pandangan Professor Kewangan Islam Saudarai, Kalau kita mengkaji banyak pandangan dari pakar-pakar kewangan islam yang terlibat langsung dengan kewangan islam dan pernah membentang kertas kerja di forum kewangan islam. Majoriti bersetuju menyatakan leverage adalah harus (permissible). Seperti kata Professor Humayon Dar, Managing Director of Dar Al Istithmar in London (Examines the Shari'ah aspects of the emerging Islamic hedge funds). ". Shari'ah does not have problems with leverage as long as it is achieved through Islamic debt. Leverage is not a Shari'ah concern, rather it is an economic issue. " Rujuk: islamicfinanceandbanking.

blog. mic-hedge. html. Kalau mengambil kata-kata beliau, saya mengambil contoh leverage dalam akaun islamik FXOpen; leverage yang dikenakan tidak dikenakan sebarang interest (interest-free). Juga kalau kita overnight pun tidak ada apa-apa interest (berbanding conventional dikenakan interest kalau overnight). Saya rasa perlunya kita merujuk banyak pihak yg mahir dan terlibat secara langsung dalam kewangan islam. Bukan sekadar merujuk graduan bachelor yg baru balik dari universiti di Jordan dan kerja 2-3 tahun di institusi kewangan islam dan tukar jadi pensyarah di uiam. Kemudian buat hukum tanpa perbincangan. hadith dhaif sebagai hujah pengharaman. Saya ingin berkongsi pengetahuan tentang satu lagi hadith yang terputus sanad (dhaif)yg dijadikan hujah pengharaman, iaitu: "Janganlah kamu menjual sesuatu yang tidak di dalam milikmu." (Riwayat Abu Daud, No 3504 3283) Rujuk Konsep Leveraj Haram; Metro Ahad 3 Februari 2008. Adalah terjemahan langsung satu hadith yang masyhur "la tabi' ma laysa 'indak" ?????????????? Beberapa isu telah dibangkit berkenaan hadith ini. Salah satunya tentang percanggahan rantaian sanadnya.

Al Bukhari dan Muslim tidak pernah merekodkan dalam koleksi mereka walaupun yang lain antaranya Abu Dawud and al Tirmidhi, ada merekodkannya. Percanggahannya adalah seperi berikut: 1. Abu Dawud, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and Ibn Hibban menyatakan ianya diriwayatkan oleh Ja'far ibn Abi Wahshiyah, dari Yusuf ibn Mahak, dari Hakim ibn Hizam, manakala yang keempatnya, ianya Abd Allah ibn 'Ismah, manakala koleksi yang lain menyatakan antara Yusuf and Hakim. Dalam al Mizan, al Dhahabi menyatakan nama pertengahan langsung tidak diketahui (la yu'araf). 2. Berkenaan periwayat utama Hadith ini, Hakim ibn Hizam, dikatakan “obscure” (majhuul al hal). Hanya Ibn Hibban memasukkan beliau antara periwayat yang boleh dipercayai (reliable al thiqqat). Sementara al Nasa’’i telah merakamkan cuma satu Hadith yang diriwayatkan oleh beliau, Yang lain menyatakan beliau adalah “obscure”. Rujukan: Commodity futures: An Islamic legal analysis Mohammad Hashim Kamali en. wikipedia. orgwikiMohammad_Hashim_Kamali --------------------------------------------------------(* Perkataan: Majhul al-Hal (dinamakan juga al-Mastur) Definisi: Perawi yang diriwayatkan daripadanya oleh dua orang atau lebih tetapi tidak ditawsiqkan. Hukum periwayatannya: tidak diterima mengikut pendapat yang sahih di sisi majoriti ulama. Adakah hadisnya itu mempunyai nama khusus? Hadisnya itu tidak mempunyai nama khusus tetapi diletakkan di bawah hadis dha`if. Rujukan: darulkautsar. compenghadi. bahasan_Kedua : ---------------------------------------------------------------(* Nota: Saya tidak pernah memandang rendah pada hadith dhaif. Cuma menyatakan bahawa hadith dhaif tidak boleh dijadikan hukum dalam soal halal dan haram.

The effects of using weak Hadeeth: islamweb. netver2archive. ng=E&id=139248 Wallahu 'alam. Bukankah leveraj dan margin trading saling berkait. Ibarat kuku dengan isi. Kalau ikut pemahaman saya, margin trading saham gunapakai pinjaman ada riba sahaja HARAM. Kalau tiada riba, jadi HALAL. Secara amnya margin trading (leverage) HALAL tanpa ada riba. Sebenarnya dalam akaun Islamik forex, margin tradingnya LANGSUNG tidak kena guna riba. Malah broker forex telah dulu merealisasikan prinsip-prinsip Qard Al Hassan (beautiful loan) berbanding bank yang berjenama perbankan Islam tidak kira di Malaysia atau luar negara. Kalau ada pun, ianya agak terbatas ruang lingkupnya seperti:Rujuk: dib. aeencommunityservice_qurad. htm Insya Allah. Saya akan huraikan tentang Qard Al Hassan pada kesempatan lain.

Berkenaan risiko pula, andai pasaran tidak menyebelahi kita, kita masih ada stop loss sebagai penyelamat. Andai kita tidak menggunakan stop loss pun, Broker forex mengamalkan Fakta #3: ***No Debit Balances*** Your risk is only limited to funds on deposit. Because there are no margin calls in forex trading, for your protection the broker will automatically close out all of your open positions if your account equity falls below the required margin level. Think of this as a final, automatic stop. In fact, you'll never lose more money than you have in your account! Janganlah susah-susahkan hati pasal forex ini halal ke haram. ianya harus. yg uzar komenkan adalah pasal leverage. leverage dlm forex menepati hukum syarak. xde riba. kena yakinkan diri yg ianya menepati hukum syarak. tanpa keyakinan boleh jatuh syubhah pula.

yg penting pakai islamic account swap free account. kan byk broker yg tawarkan islamic account. was-was itu adalah bisikan syaitan. sedangkan hukum dagang forex dan penggunaan leveraj adalah harus halal. yakinkan diri baru hati jadi tenang. kerja jadi senang. Apa-apa pun saya tiada kuasa menjatuhkan hukum HALAL @ HARAM. Saya Cuma tolong menerangkan apa yang saya fahami selama ini megenai perkara tersebut. Yang ada kuasa ialah MAJLIS FATWA KEBANGSAAN. Jikalau MAJLIS FATWA KEBANGSAAN mengeluarkan FATWA di Malaysia ini menerangkan yang Trading FOREX ini HARAM.

Maka berhentilah. Sehingga sekarang tiada apa2 FATWA dikeluarkan oleh MFK mengenai FOREX. Di dalam Islam "La ibrata bil musammayaat walakinna ibrata bil ma'aani" (Pengajaran (hukum) bukan diambil dari segi istilah sesuatu perkara bahkan pengajaran (hukum) diambil dari cara perlaksanaannya). In ISLAM to verify things that are HALAL or HARAM is not from the direct meaning of the terminology but from how it’s done. Daripada Penasihat Syar'ieShar'ie Advisor KODANA Berhad. Hukum Trading dalam Islam Menurut Para Ulama. Adanya mata uang asing merupakan salah satu bentuk dari perluasan dunia dan negara. Di satu negara nilai mata uang akan memiliki nilai yang berbeda dengan negara lainnya karena berbagai faktor dan kondisi yang menyertai negara tersebut. Hal ini berakibat juga pada perlunya keseimbangan dan pengaturan yang adil jika terjadi transaksi antar negara. Untuk itu, saat ini muncul Trading untuk proses penyetaraan mata uang. Trading memiliki arti jual beli. Dalam hal ini, trading digunakan untuk jual beli mata uang atau yang dikenal dengan istilah trading forex. Berikut adalah pandangan trading dalam sudut pandang islam.

beserta hukum trading dalam islam. Hadist dan Pendapat Ulama Mengenai Trading. Secara umum, prinsip trading seperti jual beli emas atau perak yang pernah terjadi di masa Rasulullah. Jual beli emas dan perak harus dilakukan dengan tunai atau kontan atau naqdan sehingga dapat terbebas dari transaksi yang bersifat riba. Dalam hal berjenis riba fadl. Berikut adalah prinsip-prinsip dasar mengenai trading dalam hadist dan pendapat para ulama. “ Emas hendaklah dibayar dengan emas, perak dengan perak, barli dengan barli, sya’ir dengan sya’ir(jenis gandum), kurma dengan kurma dan garam dengan garam dalam hal sejenis dan sama haruslah secara kontan(yadan biyadinnaqdan). Maka apabila berbeda jenisnya, jual lah sekehendak kalian dengan syarat secara kontan.” (HR. Muslim). Dalam hadist di atas dijelaskan bahwa, diperbolehkan adanya jual beli dengan prinsip keadilann. Bahwa semuanya harus dibayar dengan hal yang sepadan atau bernilai sama. Untuk itu harus dibayar secara kontan atau tunai, agar nilai nya setara.

Di kemudian hari bisa jadi nilainya sudah berubah atau berbeda, untuk itu harus disetarakan agar tidak terkena masalah penambahan nilai yang berakibat merugikan salah satu pihak. Ulama Islam, Ibunu Mundhir. Ulama Islam, Ibnu Mundhir, pernah membuat analogi mengenai Trading. Baginya, bisnis trading sama dengan pertukaran emas atau perak yang dikenal dengan istilah Sharf dalam ilmu fiqh. Untuk itu, nilai mata uang dapat dilakukan jual beli asalkan bukan dengan yang sejenis. Misal rupiah dengan rupiah, dollar dengan dollar. Yang boleh harus rupiah dengan dollar atau sebaliknya. Tentu pembayaran lebih ini guna menyetarakan nilai mata uang yang dibeli. Istilahnya taqabudh fi’li. Ulama Islam, Ibnu Qudamah. Ibnu Qudamah sendiri mengemukakan bahwa trading ini harus memperhatikan proses kontan atau tunai atau secara langsung. Untuk itu trading harus memperhatikan kondisi di pasar yang berlaku. Di Indonesia sendiri terdapat fatwa mengenai trading yang disepakati oleh Dewan MUI. Hal ini berrdasarkan Fatwa Dewan Syariah Nasuonal No. 28DNS-MUIIII2002 mengenai Transaksi Jual Beli Valas.

Pada prinsipnya MUI memperbolehkan asalkan memenuhi kententuan : Tidak ada proses yang bersifat spekulasi atau adanya ketidakjelasan Adanya transaksi berjaga-jaga (simpanan) Transaksi mata uang sejenis harus sama nilainya dan dilakukan secara kontan atau tunai. Jika berbeda maka harus dilakukan dengan nilai tukar (kurs) yang berlaku di pasar (market rate) saat transaksi dilakukan. Waktu ini jelas saat kapan, dimana, dan pukul berapa. Unsur dan Syarat Trading dalam Islam. Dari penjelasan di atas dijelaskan bahwa hukum trading dalam islam diperbolehkan, terutama pendapat dan ijtihad dari para ulama. Dari 3 pendekatan tersebut dapat diambil intisari bahwa islam memperbolehkan adanya trading. Tentu saja dengan ketentuan dan syarat-syarat yang harus dipenuhi dengan baik. Untuk itu, ada unsur-unsur yang harus diperhatikan dalam trading: Aqid yaitu pihak-pihak yang menjadi pelaku dari transaksi Ma’qud Ilaih, yaitu barang atau komoditi yang memiliki nilai tuka dan memiliki jangka waktu Sighat A’qad yaitu proses ijab dan qabul, yaitu kesepakatan dan perjanjian yang berlaku. Beberapa hal yang menjadi syarat atau rukun untuk proses trading adalah sebagai berikut, Objek transaski harus jelas. Hal ini berkaitan dengan jenisnya, ukurannya, sifat, waktu transaksi, nilai tukar, dan tempat penyerahannya.

Harga Tukar atau yang disebut dengan Al Tsaman harus jelas. Jenis alat tukar yang berlaku harus benar-benar disepakati dan mudah untuk diukur atau diniali. Apakah itu dalam satuan kilogram, pond, atau ukuran yang lainnya. Harus ada kejelasan mengenai kualitas objek transaksi. Kualitas tersebut tentu berdasarkan nilai kesepakatannya. Untuk itu tidak boleh ada proses yang tidak jelas mengenai kondisi atau keadaan disiknya. Apakah hal tersebut buruk, baik, berkualitas harus jelas keseluruhannya. Harus ada juga kejelasan mengenai jumlah harga tukarnya agar dapat sama-sama dinilai dan tentu hal ini harus ada kesepakatan yang berlaku. Jenis Trading dan Hukumnya. Transaksi valuta asing memiliki jenis-jenisnya tersendiri. Transaksi tersebut diantaranya adalah sebagai berikut: Transaksi Spot. Transaksi pembelian dan penjualan valuta asing (valas) untuk proses penyerahan pada saat itu (over the counter). Penyelesaian ini dilakukan paling lambat dalam waktu dua hari. Proses ini diperbolehkan karena dianggap tidak dilakukan dengna tunai atau kontan.

Waktu dua hari dianggap sebagai penyelesaian yang tidak bisa dihindari sebagai bentuk transaksi internasional yang pasti membutuhkn waktu yang merupakan transaksi internasional. Transaksi Forward. Transaksi forward yaitu transaksi pembelian atau penjualan valas yang ditetapkan nilainya pada saat sekarang dan diberlakukan untuk waktu mendatang. Waktunya antara 2 hari sampai dengan 1 tahun. Hukum dari transaksi ini adalah haram, sebab harga yang digunakan adalah harga yang sifatnya masih dalam perjanjian dan tidak real saat di kemudian hari. Maka transaksi ini diharamkan. Transaksi ini adalah kontrak jual beli mata uang dengan harga yang dikombinasikan dengan pembelian antara penjualan mata uang yang sama dengan harga terus naik. Hukumnya ini adalah haram, karena mengandung unsur spekulasi. Transaksi Option. Kontrak untuk memperoleh hak yang dalam rangka membeli yang tidak harus dilakukan melalui unit valuta asing dalam harga atau nilai dan jangka waktu sampai tanggal akhir tertentu. Hukum nya hal ini adalah haram, karena mengandung unsur spekulasi. Untuk dapat menjalankan trading dan transaksi ekonomi yang halal, maka umat islam juga bisa mempelajari lebih lanjut mengenai ekonomi syariah seperti hal-hal berikut ini: Hukum Trade Forex, Halal atau Haram ? Saya tulis juga isu ini kerana ada yang email saya bertanyakan tentang adakah pekerjaan saya ini halal atau haram ? Income saya sebagai forex trader adakah halal atau haram ? Sebenarnya topik yang nak dibincangkan ini agak berat sebenarnya, memandangkan kita sebagai umat Islam mempunyai pelbagai pendapat daripada badan-badan kerajaan, ulama-ulama, ustaz-ustaz dan ilmuan-ilmuan.

Berikut saya letakkan sedutan video tentang apakah hukum trading forex menurut perspektif Islam. Adakah harus atau haram ? Bagaimana boleh jadi haram, bagaimana boleh jadi harus ? Terdapat banyak kekhilafan dan percanggahan dalam penentuan hukum halal atau haram forex trading iaitu urusniaga pertukaran matawang secara dalam talian, bukan money changer. Dengar penjelasan terperinci daripada Ustaz Ahmad Dusuki tentang halal haram forex trading. Ustaz Ahmad Dusuki pernah menjadi panel bagi Rancangan TV9 Tanyalah Ustaz dan beliau tahu selok belok dalam urusniaga forex trading online ini, tentang perkara yang melibatkan margin, leverage, pegangan akaun dalam matawang US Dollar. Beliau juga aktif mengupas isu-isu tentang pasarang kewangan Malaysia seperti Hukum ASB, ASN, pelaburan dan lain-lain. Bagaimana forex trading jadi Harus bagaimana jadi Haram semuanya di kupas sebaik mungkin dalam video ini. Pastikan anda menonton video ini sehingga habis. Ulasan peribadi saya : Terkilan Saya sebenarnya agak terkilan dengan apa yang difatwakan di Malaysia tentang forex trading ini adalah Haram jika trade secara retail (dipanggil retail trader, trade sendiri) dan halal jika di trade di Bank-Bank. Seolah-olah jika makan ayam yang disembelih sendiri menjadi haram, tetapi jika makan ayam yang di beli dari KFC, yang diapproved dan dilesenkan menjadi halal.

Contoh sahaja lah. Sebenarnya pendapat tentang ini ramai yang mengatakan , jika kita betul-betul yakin forex trading ini halal maka kita boleh trade, dan jika kita yakin betul-betul haram, kita tinggalkannya sebab ia adalah kekhilafan ulama. Ulama dari negara jiran menetapkan harus, mufti di sini menetapkan harus, majlis fatwa menetapkan haram dan pelbagai lagi. Jika kita yakin dan tahu apa yang kita dagangkan dengan ilmu dan tidak berjudi, ia menjadi harus, inshaALLAH kita cari yang halal dan kita tidak berjudi. Saya juga sedikit terkilan dengan hukum hakam yang ditetapkan untuk produk kewangan di negara kita, contohnya ASB dan ASN, ada yang kata harus, ada yang kata haram, penelitian ada sesetengah kaunter saham yang dimiliki tidak patuh syariah tetapi ada pula panel syariah yang tetapkan harus atau halal. Pelik bukan ? Ia seolah-olah tiada titik panduan dan keputusan yang dibuat berkepentingan pada golongan-golongan tertentu. Fit4Global Forex Research. Riset Prediksi Trend Mata Uang Global dengan Mengkombinasikan Fundamental vs Teknikal, dalam satu kesatuan garis logika matematis yang berbasis Software Metatrader dan sejenisnya. Forex menurut Hukum Islam. Banyak perbedaan pendapat tentang forex itu sendiri, ada yang mengatakan tidak boleh, tetapi ada juga yang mengatakan boleh. Dibawah ini adalah pendapat yang membolehkan dari beberapa sumber tentang forex itu sendiri (sedang untuk yang tidak membolehkan forex itu sendiri, silahkan search di Google). Fit4global. wordpress.

com hanya memberi wacana, dan hanya fokus ke riset ilmiah tentang pergerakan forex. Fit4global. wordpress. com memang didedikasikan untuk meriset secara logika dan ilmiah tentang pergerakan forex baik teknikal maupun fundamental. Forex dari Perspektif Islam. Sebagian umat Islam ada yang meragukan kehalalan praktik perdagangan berjangka. Bagaimana menurut padangan para pakar Islam? Apa pendapat para ulama mengenai trading forex, trading saham, trading index, saham, dan komoditi? Apakah Hukum Forex Trading Valas Halal Menurut Hukum Islam? Mari kita ikuti selengkapnya. Jangan engkau menjual sesuatu yang tidak ada padamu,” sabda Nabi Muhammad SAW, dalam sebuah hadits riwayat Abu Hurairah. Oleh sementara fuqaha (ahli fiqih Islam), hadits tersebut ditafsirkan secara saklek.

Pokoknya, setiap praktik jual beli yang tidak ada barangnya pada waktu akad, haram. Penafsiran secara demikian itu, tak pelak lagi, membuat fiqih Islam sulit untuk memenuhi tuntutan jaman yang terus berkembang dengan perubahan-perubahannya. Karena itu, sejumlah ulama klasik yang terkenal dengan pemikiran cemerlangnya, menentang cara penafsiran yang terkesan sempit tersebut. Misalnya, Ibn al-Qayyim. Ulama bermazhab Hambali ini berpendapat, bahwa tidak benar jual-beli barang yang tidak ada dilarang. Baik dalam Al Qur’an, sunnah maupun fatwa para sahabat, larangan itu tidak ada. Dalam Sunnah Nabi, hanya terdapat larangan menjual barang yang belum ada, sebagaimana larangan beberapa barang yang sudah ada pada waktu akad. “Causa legis atau ilat larangan tersebut bukan ada atau tidak adanya barang, melainkan garar,” ujar Dr. Syamsul Anwar, MA dari IAIN SUKA Yogyakarta menjelaskan pendapat Ibn al-Qayyim. Garar adalah ketidakpastian tentang apakah barang yang diperjual-belikan itu dapat diserahkan atau tidak. Misalnya, seseorang menjual unta yang hilang. Atau menjual barang milik orang lain, padahal tidak diberi kewenangan oleh yang bersangkutan. Jadi, meskipun pada waktu akad barangnya tidak ada, namun ada kepastian diadakan pada waktu diperlukan sehingga bisa diserahkan kepada pembeli, maka jual beli tersebut sah. Sebaliknya, kendati barangnya sudah ada tapi – karena satu dan lain hal — tidak mungkin diserahkan kepada pembeli, maka jual beli itu tidak sah. Perdagangan berjangka, jelas, bukan garar. Sebab, dalam kontrak berjangkanya, jenis komoditi yang dijual-belikan sudah ditentukan. Begitu juga dengan jumlah, mutu, tempat dan waktu penyerahannya.

Semuanya berjalan di atas rel aturan resmi yang ketat, sebagai antisipasi terjadinya praktek penyimpangan berupa penipuan — satu hal yang sebetulnya bisa juga terjadi pada praktik jua-beli konvensional. Dalam perspektif hukum Islam, Perdagangan Berjangka Komoditi (PBK) (forex adalah bagian dari PBK) dapat dimasukkan ke dalam kategori almasa’il almu’ashirah atau masalah-masalah hukum Islam kontemporer. Karena itu, status hukumnya dapat dikategorikan kepada masalah ijtihadiyyah. Klasifikasi ijtihadiyyah masuk ke dalam wilayah fi ma la nasha fih, yakni masalah hukum yang tidak mempunyai referensi nash hukum yang pasti. Dalam kategori masalah hukum al-Sahrastani, ia termasuk ke dalam paradigma al-nushush qad intahat wa al-waqa’I la tatanahi. Artinya, nash hukum dalam bentuk Al-Quran dan Sunnah sudah selesai; tidak lagi ada tambahan. Dengan demikian, kasus-kasus hukum yang baru muncul mesti diberikan kepastian hukumnya melalui ijtihad. Dalam kasus hukum PBK, ijtihad dapat merujuk kepada teori perubahan hukum yang diperkenalkan oleh Ibn Qoyyim al-Jauziyyah. Ia menjelaskan, fatwa hukum dapat berubah karena beberapa variabel perubahnya, yakni: waktu, tempat, niat, tujuan dan manfaat. Teori perubahan hukum ini diturunkan dari paradigma ilmu hukum dari gurunya Ibn Taimiyyah, yang menyatakan bahwa a-haqiqah fi al-a’yan la fi al-adzhan. Artinya, kebenaran hukum itu dijumpai dalam kenyataan empirik; bukan dalam alam pemikiran atau alam idea. Paradigma ini diturunkan dari prinsip hukum Islam tentang keadilan yang dalam Al Quran digunakan istilah al-mizan, a-qisth, al-wasth, dan al-adl. Dalam penerapannya, secara khusus masalah PBK dapat dimasukkan ke dalam bidang kajian fiqh al-siyasah maliyyah, yakni politik hukum kebendaan. Dengan kata lain, PBK termasuk kajian hukum Islam dalam pengertian bagaimana hukum Islam diterapkan dalam masalah kepemilikan atas harta benda, melalui perdagangan berjangka komoditi dalam era globalisasi dan perdagangan bebas. Realisasi yang paling mungkin dalam rangka melindungi pelaku dan pihak-pihak yang terlibat dalam perdagangan berjangka komoditi dalam ruang dan waktu serta pertimbangan tujuan dan manfaatnya dewasa ini, sejalan dengan semangat dan bunyi UU No. 321977 tentang PBK. Karena teori perubahan hukum seperti dijelaskan di atas, dapat menunjukkan elastisitas hukum Islam dalam kelembagaan dan praktek perekonomian, maka PBK dalam sistem hukum Islam dapat dianalogikan dengan bay’ al-salam’ajl bi’ajil.

Bay’ al-salam dapat diartikan sebagai berikut. Al-salam atau al-salaf adalah bay’ ajl bi’ajil, yakni memperjualbelikan sesuatu yang dengan ketentuan sifat-sifatnya yang terjamin kebenarannya. Di dalam transaksi demikian, penyerahan ra’s al-mal dalam bentuk uang sebagai nilai tukar didahulukan daripada penyerahan komoditi yang dimaksud dalam transaksi itu. Ulama Syafi’iyah dan Hanabilah mendefinisikannya dengan: “Akad atas komoditas jual beli yang diberi sifat terjamin yang ditangguhkan (berjangka) dengan harga jual yang ditetapkan di dalam bursa akad”. Keabsahan transaksi jual beli berjangka, ditentukan oleh terpenuhinya rukun dan syarat sebagai berikut: a) Rukun sebagai unsur-unsur utama yang harus ada dalam suatu peristiwa transaksi Unsur-unsur utama di dalam bay’ al-salam adalah: Pihak-pihak pelaku transaksi (‘aqid) yang disebut dengan istilah muslim atau muslim ilaih. Objek transaksi (ma’qud alaih), yaitu barang-barang komoditi berjangka dan harga tukar (ra’s al-mal al-salam dan al-muslim fih). Kalimat transaksi (Sighat ‘aqad), yaitu ijab dan kabul. Yang perlu diperhatikan dari unsur-unsur tersebut, adalah bahwa ijab dan qabul dinyatakan dalam bahasa dan kalimat yang jelas menunjukkan transaksi berjangka. Karena itu, ulama Syafi’iyah menekankan penggunaan istilah al-salam atau al-salaf di dalam kalimat-kalimat transaksi itu, dengan alasan bahwa ‘aqd al-salam adalah bay’ al-ma’dum dengan sifat dan cara berbeda dari akad jual dan beli (buy). Persyaratan menyangkut objek transaksi, adalah: bahwa objek transaksi harus memenuhi kejelasan mengenai: jenisnya (an yakun fi jinsin ma’lumin), sifatnya, ukuran (kadar), jangka penyerahan, harga tukar, tempat penyerahan. Persyaratan yang harus dipenuhi oleh harga tukar (al-tsaman), adalah, Pertama, kejelasan jenis alat tukar, yaitu dirham, dinar, rupiah atau dolar dsb atau barang-barang yang dapat ditimbang, disukat, dsb. Kedua, kejelasan jenis alat tukar apakah rupiah, dolar Amerika, dolar Singapura, dst. Apakah timbangan yang disepakati dalam bentuk kilogram, pond, dst. Kejelasan tentang kualitas objek transaksi, apakah kualitas istimewa, baik sedang atau buruk. Syarat-syarat di atas ditetapkan dengan maksud menghilangkan jahalah fi al-’aqd atau alasan ketidaktahuan kondisi-kondisi barang pada saat transaksi. Sebab hal ini akan mengakibatkan terjadinya perselisihan di antara pelaku transaksi, yang akan merusak nilai transaksi. Kejelasan jumlah harga tukar.

Penjelasan singkat di atas nampaknya telah dapat memberikan kejelasan kebolehan PBK. Kalaupun dalam pelaksanaannya masih ada pihak-pihak yang merasa dirugikan dengan peraturan perundang-undangan yang ada, maka dapatlah digunakan kaidah hukum atau legal maxim yang berbunyi: ma la yudrak kulluh la yutrak kulluh. Apa yang tidak dapat dilaksanakan semuanya, maka tidak perlu ditinggalkan keseluruhannya. Dengan demikian, hukum dan pelaksanaan PBK sampai batas-batas tertentu boleh dinyatakan dapat diterima atau setidak-tidaknya sesuai dengan semangat dan jiwa norma hukum Islam, dengan menganalogikan kepada bay’ al-salam. ISLAMIC FOREX TRADING By Dr Mohammed Obaidullah. 1. The Basic Exchange Contracts. There is a general consensus among Islamic jurists on the view that currencies of different countries can be exchanged on a spot basis at a rate different from unity, since currencies of different countries are distinct entities with different values or intrinsic worth, and purchasing power. There also seems to be a general agreement among a majority of scholars on the view that currency exchange on a forward basis is not permissible, that is, when the rights and obligations of both parties relate to a future date. However, there is considerable difference of opinion among jurists when the rights of either one of the parties, which is same as obligation of the counterparty, is deferred to a future date. To elaborate, let us consider the example of two individuals A and B who belong to two different countries, India and US respectively. A intends to sell Indian rupees and buy U. S dollars. The converse is true for B. The rupee-dollar exchange rate agreed upon is 1:20 and the transaction involves buying and selling of $50. The first situation is that A makes a spot payment of Rs1000 to B and accepts payment of $50 from B. The transaction is settled on a spot basis from both ends. Such transactions are valid and Islamically permissible. There are no two opinions about the same. The second possibility is that settlement of the transaction from both ends is deferred to a future date, say after six months from now. This implies that both A and B would make and accept payment of Rs1000 or $50, as the case may be, after six months.

The predominant view is that such a contract is not Islamically permissible. A minority view considers it permissible. The third scenario is that the transaction is partly settled from one end only. For example, A makes a payment of Rs1000 now to B in lieu of a promise by B to pay $50 to him after six months. Alternatively, A accepts $50 now from B and promises to pay Rs1000 to him after six months. There are diametrically opposite views on the permissibility of such contracts which amount to bai-salam in currencies. The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive analysis of various arguments in support and against the permissibility of these basic contracts involving currencies. The first form of contracting involving exchange of countervalues on a spot basis is beyond any kind of controversy. Permissibility or otherwise of the second type of contract in which delivery of one of the countervalues is deferred to a future date, is generally discussed in the framework of riba prohibition. Accordingly we discuss this contract in detail in section 2 dealing with the issue of prohibition of riba. Permissibility of the third form of contract in which delivery of both the countervalues is deferred, is generally discussed within the framework of reducing risk and uncertainty or gharar involved in such contracts. This, therefore, is the central theme of section 3 which deals with the issue of gharar. Section 4 attempts a holistic view of the Sharia relates issues as also the economic significance of the basic forms of contracting in the currency market. 2. The Issue of Riba Prohibition.

The divergence of views1 on the permissibility or otherwise of exchange contracts in currencies can be traced primarily to the issue of riba prohibition. The need to eliminate riba in all forms of exchange contracts is of utmost importance. Riba in its Sharia context is generally defined2 as an unlawful gain derived from the quantitative inequality of the countervalues in any transaction purporting to effect the exchange of two or more species (anwa), which belong to the same genus (jins) and are governed by the same efficient cause (illa). Riba is generally classified into riba al-fadl (excess) and riba al-nasia (deferment) which denote an unlawful advantage by way of excess or deferment respectively. Prohibition of the former is achieved by a stipulation that the rate of exchange between the objects is unity and no gain is permissible to either party. The latter kind of riba is prohibited by disallowing deferred settlement and ensuring that the transaction is settled on the spot by both the parties. Another form of riba is called riba al-jahiliyya or pre-Islamic riba which surfaces when the lender asks the borrower on the maturity date if the latter would settle the debt or increase the same. Increase is accompanied by charging interest on the amount initially borrowed. The prohibition of riba in the exchange of currencies belonging to different countries requires a process of analogy (qiyas). And in any such exercise involving analogy (qiyas), efficient cause (illa) plays an extremely important role.

It is a common efficient cause (illa), which connects the object of the analogy with its subject, in the exercise of analogical reasoning. The appropriate efficient cause (illa) in case of exchange contracts has been variously defined by the major schools of Fiqh. This difference is reflected in the analogous reasoning for paper currencies belonging to different countries. A question of considerable significance in the process of analogous reasoning relates to the comparison between paper currencies with gold and silver. In the early days of Islam, gold and silver performed all the functions of money (thaman). Currencies were made of gold and silver with a known intrinsic value (quantum of gold or silver contained in them). Such currencies are described as thaman haqiqi, or naqdain in Fiqh literature. These were universally acceptable as principal means of exchange, accounting for a large chunk of transactions. Many other commodities, such as, various inferior metals also served as means of exchange, but with limited acceptability. These are described as fals in Fiqh literature. These are also known as thaman istalahi because of the fact that their acceptability stems not from their intrinsic worth, but due to the status accorded by the society during a particular period of time.

The above two forms of currencies have been treated very differently by early Islamic jurists from the standpoint of permissibility of contracts involving them. The issue that needs to be resolved is whether the present age paper currencies fall under the former category or the latter. One view is that these should be treated at par with thaman haqiqi or gold and silver, since these serve as the principal means of exchange and unit of account like the latter. Hence, by analogous reasoning, all the Sharia-related norms and injunctions applicable to thaman haqiqi should also be applicable to paper currency. Exchange of thaman haqiqi is known as bai-sarf, and hence, the transactions in paper currencies should be governed by the Sharia rules relevant for bai-sarf. The contrary view asserts that paper currencies should be treated in a manner similar to fals or thaman istalahi because of the fact that their face value is different from their intrinsic worth. Their acceptability stems from their legal status within the domestic country or global economic importance (as in case of US dollars, for instance). 2.1. A Synthesis of Alternative Views. 2.1.1. Analogical Reasoning (Qiyas) for Riba Prohibition. The prohibition of riba is based on the tradition that the holy prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Sell gold for gold, silver for silver, wheat for wheat, barley for barley, date for date, salt for salt, in same quantities on the spot; and when the commodities are different, sell as it suits you, but on the spot.” Thus, the prohibition of riba applies primarily to the two precious metals (gold and silver) and four other commodities (wheat, barley, dates and salt). It also applies, by analogy (qiyas) to all species which are governed by the same efficient cause (illa) or which belong to any one of the genera of the six objects cited in the tradition. However, there is no general agreement among the various schools of Fiqh and even scholars belonging to the same school on the definition and identification of efficient cause (illa) of riba. For the Hanafis, efficient cause (illa) of riba has two dimensions: the exchanged articles belong to the same genus (jins); these possess weight (wazan) or measurability (kiliyya).

If in a given exchange, both the elements of efficient cause (illa) are present, that is, the exchanged countervalues belong to the same genus (jins) and are all weighable or all measurable, then no gain is permissible (the exchange rate must be equal to unity) and the exchange must be on a spot basis. In case of gold and silver, the two elements of efficient cause (illa) are: unity of genus (jins) and weighability. This is also the Hanbali view according to one version3. (A different version is similar to the Shafii and Maliki view, as discussed below.) Thus, when gold is exchanged for gold, or silver is exchanged for silver, only spot transactions without any gain are permissible. It is also possible that in a given exchange, one of the two elements of efficient cause (illa) is present and the other is absent. For example, if the exchanged articles are all weighable or measurable but belong to different genus (jins) or, if the exchanged articles belong to same genus (jins) but neither is weighable nor measurable, then exchange with gain (at a rate different from unity) is permissible, but the exchange must be on a spot basis. Thus, when gold is exchanged for silver, the rate can be different from unity but no deferred settlement is permissible. If none of the two elements of efficient cause (illa) of riba are present in a given exchange, then none of the injunctions for riba prohibition apply. Exchange can take place with or without gain and both on a spot or deferred basis.

Considering the case of exchange involving paper currencies belonging to different countries, riba prohibition would require a search for efficient cause (illa). Currencies belonging to different countries are clearly distinct entities; these are legal tender within specific geographical boundaries with different intrinsic worth or purchasing power. Hence, a large majority of scholars perhaps rightly assert that there is no unity of genus (jins). Additionally, these are neither weighable nor measurable. This leads to a direct conclusion that none of the two elements of efficient cause (illa) of riba exist in such exchange. Hence, the exchange can take place free from any injunction regarding the rate of exchange and the manner of settlement. The logic underlying this position is not difficult to comprehend. The intrinsic worth of paper currencies belonging to different countries differ as these have different purchasing power. Additionally, the intrinsic value or worth of paper currencies cannot be identified or assessed unlike gold and silver which can be weighed. Hence, neither the presence of riba al-fadl (by excess), nor riba al-nasia (by deferment) can be established. The Shafii school of Fiqh considers the efficient cause (illa) in case of gold and silver to be their property of being currency (thamaniyya) or the medium of exchange, unit of account and store of value . This is also the Maliki view.

According to one version of this view, even if paper or leather is made the medium of exchange and is given the status of currency, then all the rules pertaining to naqdain, or gold and silver apply to them. Thus, according to this version, exchange involving currencies of different countries at a rate different from unity is permissible, but must be settled on a spot basis. Another version of the above two schools of thought is that the above cited efficient cause (illa) of being currency (thamaniyya) is specific to gold and silver, and cannot be generalized. That is, any other object, if used as a medium of exchange, cannot be included in their category. Hence, according to this version, the Sharia injunctions for riba prohibition are not applicable to paper currencies. Currencies belonging to different countries can be exchanged with or without gain and both on a spot or deferred basis. Proponents of the earlier version cite the case of exchange of paper currencies belonging to the same country in defense of their version. The consensus opinion of jurists in this case is that such exchange must be without any gain or at a rate equal to unity and must be settled on a spot basis. What is the rationale underlying the above decision? If one considers the Hanafi and the first version of Hanbali position then, in this case, only one dimension of the efficient cause (illa) is present, that is, they belong to the same genus (jins). But paper currencies are neither weighable nor measurable. Hence, Hanafi law would apparently permit exchange of different quantities of the same currency on a spot basis.

Similarly if the efficient cause of being currency (thamaniyya) is specific only to gold and silver, then Shafii and Maliki law would also permit the same. Needless to say, this amounts to permitting riba-based borrowing and lending. This shows that, it is the first version of the Shafii and Maliki thought which underlies the consensus decision of prohibition of gain and deferred settlement in case of exchange of currencies belonging to the same country. According to the proponents, extending this logic to exchange of currencies of different countries would imply that exchange with gain or at a rate different from unity is permissible (since there no unity of jins), but settlement must be on a spot basis. 2.1.2 Comparison between Currency Exchange and Bai-Sarf. Bai-sarf is defined in Fiqh literature as an exchange involving thaman haqiqi, defined as gold and silver, which served as the principal medium of exchange for almost all major transactions. Proponents of the view that any exchange of currencies of different countries is same as bai-sarf argue that in the present age paper currencies have effectively and completely replaced gold and silver as the medium of exchange. Hence, by analogy, exchange involving such currencies should be governed by the same Sharia rules and injunctions as bai-sarf. It is also argued that if deferred settlement by either parties to the contract is permitted, this would open the possibilities of riba-al nasia. Opponents of categorization of currency exchange with bai-sarf however point out that the exchange of all forms of currency (thaman) cannot be termed as bai-sarf. According to this view bai-sarf implies exchange of currencies made of gold and silver (thaman haqiqi or naqdain) alone and not of money pronounced as such by the state authorities (thaman istalahi). The present age currencies are examples of the latter kind. These scholars find support in those writings which assert that if the commodities of exchange are not gold or silver, (even if one of these is gold or silver) then, the exchange cannot be termed as bai-sarf. Nor would the stipulations regarding bai-sarf be applicable to such exchanges.

According to Imam Sarakhsi4 “when an individual purchases fals or coins made out of inferior metals, such as, copper (thaman istalahi) for dirhams (thaman haqiqi) and makes a spot payment of the latter, but the seller does not have fals at that moment, then such exchange is permissible…….. taking possession of commodities exchanged by both parties is not a precondition” (while in case of bai-sarf, it is.) A number of similar references exist which indicate that jurists do not classify an exchange of fals (thaman istalahi) for another fals (thaman istalahi) or gold or silver (thaman haqiqi), as bai-sarf. Hence, the exchanges of currencies of two different countries which can only qualify as thaman istalahi can not be categorized as bai-sarf. Nor can the constraint regarding spot settlement be imposed on such transactions. It should be noted here that the definition of bai-sarf is provided Fiqh literature and there is no mention of the same in the holy traditions. The traditions mention about riba, and the sale and purchase of gold and silver (naqdain) which may be a major source of riba, is described as bai-sarf by the Islamic jurists. It should also be noted that in Fiqh literature, bai-sarf implies exchange of gold or silver only; whether these are currently being used as medium of exchange or not. Exchange involving dinars and gold ornaments, both quality as bai-sarf. Various jurists have sought to clarify this point and have defined sarf as that exchange in which both the commodities exchanged are in the nature of thaman, not necessarily thaman themselves. Hence, even when one of the commodities is processed gold (say, ornaments), such exchange is called bai-sarf. Proponents of the view that currency exchange should be treated in a manner similar to bai-sarf also derive support from writings of eminent Islamic jurists. According to Imam Ibn Taimiya “anything that performs the functions of medium of exchange, unit of account, and store of value is called thaman, (not necessarily limited to gold & silver).

Similar references are available in the writings of Imam Ghazzali5 As far as the views of Imam Sarakhshi is concerned regarding exchange involving fals, according to them, some additional points need to be taken note of. In the early days of Islam, dinars and dirhams made of gold and silver were mostly used as medium of exchange in all major transactions. Only the minor ones were settled with fals. In other words, fals did not possess the characteristics of money or thamaniyya in full and was hardly used as store of value or unit of account and was more in the nature of commodity. Hence there was no restriction on purchase of the same for gold and silver on a deferred basis. The present day currencies have all the features of thaman and are meant to be thaman only. The exchange involving currencies of different countries is same as bai-sarf with difference of jins and hence, deferred settlement would lead to riba al-nasia. Dr Mohamed Nejatullah Siddiqui illustrates this possibility with an example6. He writes “In a given moment in time when the market rate of exchange between dollar and rupee is 1:20, if an individual purchases $50 at the rate of 1:22 (settlement of his obligation in rupees deferred to a future date), then it is highly probable that he is , in fact, borrowing Rs. 1000 now in lieu of a promise to repay Rs. 1100 on a specified later date. (Since, he can obtain Rs 1000 now, exchanging the $50 purchased on credit at spot rate)” Thus, sarf can be converted into interest-based borrowing & lending.

2.1.3 Defining Thamaniyya is the Key ? It appears from the above synthesis of alternative views that the key issue seems to be a correct definition of thamaniyya. For instance, a fundamental question that leads to divergent positions on permissibility relates to whether thamaniyya is specific to gold and silver, or can be associated with anything that performs the functions of money. We raise some issues below which may be taken into account in any exercise in reconsideration of alternative positions. It should be appreciated that thamaniyya may not be absolute and may vary in degrees. It is true that paper currencies have completely replaced gold and silver as medium of exchange, unit of account and store of value. In this sense, paper currencies can be said to possess thamaniyya. However, this is true for domestic currencies only and may not be true for foreign currencies. In other words, Indian rupees possess thamaniyya within the geographical boundaries of India only, and do not have any acceptability in US. These cannot be said to possess thamaniyya in US unless a US citizen can use Indian rupees as a medium of exchange, or unit of account, or store of value. In most cases such a possibility is remote. This possibility is also a function of the exchange rate mechanism in place, such as, convertibility of Indian rupees into US dollars, and whether a fixed or floating exchange rate system is in place. For example, assuming free convertibility of Indian rupees into US dollars and vice versa, and a fixed exchange rate system in which the rupee-dollar exchange rate is not expected to increase or decrease in the foreseeable future, thamaniyya of rupee in US is considerably improved. The example cited by Dr Nejatullah Siddiqui also appears quite robust under the circumstances.

Permission to exchange rupees for dollars on a deferred basis (from one end, of course) at a rate different from the spot rate (official rate which is likely to remain fixed till the date of settlement) would be a clear case of interest-based borrowing and lending. However, if the assumption of fixed exchange rate is relaxed and the present system of fluctuating and volatile exchange rates is assumed to be the case, then it can be shown that the case of riba al-nasia breaks down. We rewrite his example: “In a given moment in time when the market rate of exchange between dollar and rupee is 1:20, if an individual purchases $50 at the rate of 1:22 (settlement of his obligation in rupees deferred to a future date), then it is highly probable that he is , in fact, borrowing Rs. 1000 now in lieu of a promise to repay Rs. 1100 on a specified later date. (Since, he can obtain Rs 1000 now, exchanging the $50 purchased on credit at spot rate)” This would be so, only if the currency risk is non-existent (exchange rate remains at 1:20), or is borne by the seller of dollars (buyer repays in rupees and not in dollars). If the former is true, then the seller of the dollars (lender) receives a predetermined return of ten percent when he converts Rs1100 received on the maturity date into $55 (at an exchange rate of 1:20). However, if the latter is true, then the return to the seller (or the lender) is not predetermined. It need not even be positive. For example, if the rupee-dollar exchange rate increases to 1:25, then the seller of dollar would receive only $44 (Rs 1100 converted into dollars) for his investment of $50. Here two points are worth noting. First, when one assumes a fixed exchange rate regime, the distinction between currencies of different countries gets diluted. The situation becomes similar to exchanging pounds with sterlings (currencies belonging to the same country) at a fixed rate. Second, when one assumes a volatile exchange rate system, then just as one can visualize lending through the foreign currency market (mechanism suggested in the above example), one can also visualize lending through any other organized market (such as, for commodities or stocks.) If one replaces dollars for stocks in the above example, it would read as: “In a given moment in time when the market price of stock X is Rs 20, if an individual purchases 50 stocks at the rate of Rs 22 (settlement of his obligation in rupees deferred to a future date), then it is highly probable that he is , in fact, borrowing Rs. 1000 now in lieu of a promise to repay Rs. 1100 on a specified later date.

(Since, he can obtain Rs 1000 now, exchanging the 50 stocks purchased on credit at current price)” In this case too as in the earlier example, returns to the seller of stocks may be negative if stock price rises to Rs 25 on the settlement date. Hence, just as returns in the stock market or commodity market are Islamically acceptable because of the price risk, so are returns in the currency market because of fluctuations in the prices of currencies. A unique feature of thaman haqiqi or gold and silver is that the intrinsic worth of the currency is equal to its face value. Thus, the question of different geographical boundaries within which a given currency, such as, dinar or dirham circulates, is completely irrelevant. Gold is gold whether in country A or country B. Thus, when currency of country A made of gold is exchanged for currency of country B, also made of gold, then any deviation of the exchange rate from unity or deferment of settlement by either party cannot be permitted as it would clearly involve riba al-fadl and also riba al-nasia. However, when paper currencies of country A is exchanged for paper currency of country B, the case may be entirely different. The price risk (exchange rate risk), if positive, would eliminate any possibility of riba al-nasia in the exchange with deferred settlement. However, if price risk (exchange rate risk) is zero, then such exchange could be a source of riba al-nasia if deferred settlement is permitted7. Another point that merits serious consideration is the possibility that certain currencies may possess thamaniyya, that is, used as a medium of exchange, unit of account, or store of value globally, within the domestic as well as foreign countries. For instance, US dollar is legal tender within US; it is also acceptable as a medium of exchange or unit of account for a large volume of transactions across the globe. Thus, this specific currency may be said to possesses thamaniyya globally, in which case, jurists may impose the relevant injunctions on exchanges involving this specific currency to prevent riba al-nasia.

The fact is that when a currency possesses thamaniyya globally, then economic units using this global currency as the medium of exchange, unit of account or store of value may not be concerned about risk arising from volatility of inter-country exchange rates. At the same time, it should be recognized that a large majority of currencies do not perform the functions of money except within their national boundaries where these are legal tender. Riba and risk cannot coexist in the same contract. The former connotes a possibility of returns with zero risk and cannot be earned through a market with positive price risk. As has been discussed above, the possibility of riba al-fadl or riba al-nasia may arise in exchange when gold or silver function as thaman; or when the exchange involves paper currencies belonging to the same country; or when the exchange involves currencies of different countries following a fixed exchange rate system. The last possibility is perhaps unIslamic8 since price or exchange rate of currencies should be allowed to fluctuate freely in line with changes in demand and supply and also because prices should reflect the intrinsic worth or purchasing power of currencies. The foreign currency markets of today are characterised by volatile exchange rates. The gains or losses made on any transaction in currencies of different countries, are justified by the risk borne by the parties to the contract. 2.1.4. Possibility of Riba with Futures and Forwards. So far, we have discussed views on the permissibility of bai salam in currencies, that is, when the obligation of only one of the parties to the exchange is deferred. What are the views of scholars on deferment of obligations of both parties ? Typical example of such contracts are forwards and futures9. According to a large majority of scholars, this is not permissible on various grounds, the most important being the element of risk and uncertainty (gharar) and the possibility of speculation of a kind which is not permissible.

This is discussed in section 3. However, another ground for rejecting such contracts may be riba prohibition. In the preceding paragraph we have discussed that bai salam in currencies with fluctuating exchange rates can not be used to earn riba because of the presence of currency risk. It is possible to demonstrate that currency risk can be hedged or reduced to zero with another forward contract transacted simultaneously. And once risk is eliminated, the gain clearly would be riba. We modify and rewrite the same example: “In a given moment in time when the market rate of exchange between dollar and rupee is 1:20, an individual purchases $50 at the rate of 1:22 (settlement of his obligation in rupees deferred to a future date), and the seller of dollars also hedges his position by entering into a forward contract to sell Rs1100 to be received on the future date at a rate of 1:20, then it is highly probable that he is , in fact, borrowing Rs. 1000 now in lieu of a promise to repay Rs. 1100 on a specified later date. (Since, he can obtain Rs 1000 now, exchanging the 50 dollars purchased on credit at spot rate)” The seller of the dollars (lender) receives a predetermined return of ten percent when he converts Rs1100 received on the maturity date into 55 dollars (at an exchange rate of 1:20) for his investment of 50 dollars irrespective of the market rate of exchange prevailing on the date of maturity. Another simple possible way to earn riba may even involve a spot transaction and a simultaneous forward transaction. For example, the individual in the above example purchases $50 on a spot basis at the rate of 1:20 and simultaneously enters into a forward contract with the same party to sell $50 at the rate of 1:21 after one month. In effect this implies that he is lending Rs1000 now to the seller of dollars for one month and earns an interest of Rs50 (he receives Rs1050 after one month. This is a typical buy-back or repo (repurchase) transaction so common in conventional banking.10. 3. The Issue of Freedom from Gharar. 3.1 Defining Gharar. Gharar, unlike riba, does not have a consensus definition. In broad terms, it connotes risk and uncertainty.

It is useful to view gharar as a continuum of risk and uncertainty wherein the extreme point of zero risk is the only point that is well-defined. Beyond this point, gharar becomes a variable and the gharar involved in a real life contract would lie somewhere on this continuum. Beyond a point on this continuum, risk and uncertainty or gharar becomes unacceptable11. Jurists have attempted to identify such situations involving forbidden gharar. A major factor that contributes to gharar is inadequate information (jahl) which increases uncertainty. This is when the terms of exchange, such as, price, objects of exchange, time of settlement etc. are not well-defined. Gharar is also defined in terms of settlement risk or the uncertainty surrounding delivery of the exchanged articles. Islamic scholars have identified the conditions which make a contract uncertain to the extent that it is forbidden. Each party to the contract must be clear as to the quantity, specification, price, time, and place of delivery of the contract. A contract, say, to sell fish in the river involves uncertainty about the subject of exchange, about its delivery, and hence, not Islamically permissible. The need to eliminate any element of uncertainty inherent in a contract is underscored by a number of traditions.12. An outcome of excessive gharar or uncertainty is that it leads to the possibility of speculation of a variety which is forbidden. Speculation in its worst form, is gambling.

The holy Quran and the traditions of the holy prophet explicitly prohibit gains made from games of chance which involve unearned income. The term used for gambling is maisir which literally means getting something too easily, getting a profit without working for it. Apart from pure games of chance, the holy prophet also forbade actions which generated unearned incomes without much productive efforts.13. Here it may be noted that the term speculation has different connotations. It always involves an attempt to predict the future outcome of an event. But the process may or may not be backed by collection, analysis and interpretation of relevant information. The former case is very much in conformity with Islamic rationality. An Islamic economic unit is required to assume risk after making a proper assessment of risk with the help of information. All business decisions involve speculation in this sense. It is only in the absence of information or under conditions of excessive gharar or uncertainty that speculation is akin to a game of chance and is reprehensible. 3.2 Gharar & Speculation with of Futures & Forwards. Considering the case of the basic exchange contracts highlighted in section 1, it may be noted that the third type of contract where settlement by both the parties is deferred to a future date is forbidden, according to a large majority of jurists on grounds of excessive gharar.

Futures and forwards in currencies are examples of such contracts under which two parties become obliged to exchange currencies of two different countries at a known rate at the end of a known time period. For example, individuals A and B commit to exchange US dollars and Indian rupees at the rate of 1: 22 after one month. If the amount involved is $50 and A is the buyer of dollars then, the obligations of A and B are to make a payments of Rs1100 and $50 respectively at the end of one month. The contract is settled when both the parties honour their obligations on the future date. Traditionally, an overwhelming majority of Sharia scholars have disapproved such contracts on several grounds. The prohibition applies to all such contracts where the obligations of both parties are deferred to a future date, including contracts involving exchange of currencies. An important objection is that such a contract involves sale of a non-existent object or of an object not in the possession of the seller. This objection is based on several traditions of the holy prophet.14 There is difference of opinion on whether the prohibition in the said traditions apply to foodstuffs, or perishable commodities or to all objects of sale. There is, however, a general agreement on the view that the efficient cause (illa) of the prohibition of sale of an object which the seller does not own or of sale prior to taking possession is gharar, or the possible failure to deliver the goods purchased. Is this efficient cause (illa) present in an exchange involving future contracts in currencies of different countries ? In a market with full and free convertibility or no constraints on the supply of currencies, the probability of failure to deliver the same on the maturity date should be no cause for concern. Further, the standardized nature of futures contracts and transparent operating procedures on the organized futures markets15 is believed to minimize this probability.

Some recent scholars have opined in the light of the above that futures, in general, should be permissible. According to them, the efficient cause (illa), that is, the probability of failure to deliver was quite relevant in a simple, primitive and unorganized market. It is no longer relevant in the organized futures markets of today16. Such contention, however, continues to be rejected by the majority of scholars. They underscore the fact that futures contracts almost never involve delivery by both parties. On the contrary, parties to the contract reverse the transaction and the contract is settled in price difference only. For example, in the above example, if the currency exchange rate changes to 1: 23 on the maturity date, the reverse transaction for individual A would mean selling $50 at the rate of 1:23 to individual B. This would imply A making a gain of Rs50 (the difference between Rs1150 and Rs1100). This is exactly what B would lose. It may so happen that the exchange rate would change to 1:21 in which case A would lose Rs50 which is what B would gain. This obviously is a zero-sum game in which the gain of one party is exactly equal to the loss of the other. This possibility of gains or losses (which theoretically can touch infinity) encourages economic units to speculat



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